EdXcellence: Latest in Learning Theories & Advancement in Technologies

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Interaction Hypothesis

The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication. The idea existed in the 1980s,but is usually credited to Michael Long for his 1996 paper The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition.

1. Interaction Hypothesis

7. Content-based Instruction

2. Experiential Learning

8. Artificial Intelligence

3. Simulation Theory

9. Non-verbal Communication

4. Customisation

10. Affective Filter hypothesis

5. Communicative Method

11. Think on Your Feet

6. Contextual Feedback

12. Gordon’s 4-stage Learning

Interaction hypothesis claims that comprehensible input is important for language learning. In addition, it claims that the effectiveness of comprehensible input is greatly increased when learners have to negotiate for meaning. This occurs when there is a breakdown in communication which interlocutors attempt to overcome. One of the participants in a conversation will say something that the other does not understand; the participants will then use various communicative strategies to help the interaction progress. The strategies used when negotiating meaning may include slowing down speech, speaking more deliberately, requests for clarification or repair of speech, or paraphrases.

Interactions often result in learners receiving negative evidence.That is, if learners say something that their interlocutors do not understand, after negotiation the interlocutors may model the correct language form. In doing this, learners can receive feedback on their production and on grammar that they have not yet mastered. The process of interaction may also result in learners receiving more input from their interlocutors than they would otherwise.

Furthermore, if learners stop to clarify things that they do not understand, they may have more time to process the input they receive. This can lead to better understanding and possibly the acquisition of new language forms. Finally, interactions may serve as a way of focusing learners' attention on a difference between their knowledge of the target language and the reality of what they are hearing; it may also focus their attention on a part of the target language of which they are not yet aware.

Experiential Learning

Experiential learning is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing". Experiential learning is distinct from rote or didactic learning, in which the learner plays a comparatively passive role. It is related to but not synonymous with other forms of active learning such as action learning, adventure learning, free choice learning, cooperative learning, and service learning.

Experiential learning is often used synonymously with the term "experiential education", but while experiential education is a broader philosophy of education, experiential learning considers the individual learning process. As such, compared to experiential education, experiential learning is concerned with more concrete issues related to the learner and the learning context.

The general concept of learning through experience is ancient. Around 350 BCE, Aristotle wrote in the Nichomachean Ethics "for the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them". But as an articulated educational approach, experiential learning is of much more recent vintage. Beginning in the 1970s, David A. Kolb helped to develop the modern theory of experiential learning, drawing heavily on the work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget.

If necessity is the mother of inventions or innovations, education has the crucial necessities, that needs to be addresses at the earliest. That is the key driver for EdXcellence team to question and challenge the states quo and devise new methods based on latest learning theories and technologies, for example,

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Content-based Instruction (Theme-based Learning)

Content-based instruction (CBI) is teaching organized around the content or information that students will acquire, and not around the linguistic or other type of syllabus. CBI is an effective method of combining language and content learning. Theme based CBI works well in EFL contexts. Content refers to the substance or subject matter that we learn or communicate through language content rather that the language use to convey it.

CBI is built on the principles of Communicative Language Teaching. Classroom needs to be filled with real and meaningful communication where information is exchanged.

Content-based instruction is based in two principles:

1. People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information, rather than as an end in it. This principle reflects one of the motivations for CBI noted earlier that it leads to more effective language learning.

2. It better reflect learners needs for learning a second language. Many ESL,EFL programs focus on preparing students for academic studies or for mainstreaming.

Simulation Theory

In plain English, Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Most people first think of "flight simulators" or "driving simulators" when they hear the term simulation. But, simulation is much more. Simulators can recreate experiences. They can demonstrate the consequences of one’s actions - in advance.

Simulations hold great potential for training people for almost any situation. Education researchers have, in fact, determined that people, especially adults, learn better by experience than through reading or lectures. Simulated experiences can be just as valuable a training tool as the real thing.

More information can be found from the website of Institute of Simulation & Training. University of Southern Florida.

  http://www.ist.ucf.edu/background.htm

Innovation is the spark of insight that leads an enthusiast to investigate an issue or phenomenon. That insight is usually shaped by an observation of what appears to be true or the creative jolt of a new idea.

Innovation is driven by a commitment to excellence and continuous improvement. Innovation is based on curiosity, the willingness to take risks, and experimenting to test assumptions. Innovation is based on questioning and challenging the status quo. It is also based on recognizing opportunity and taking advantage of it.

CBI sees language as combination of several skills used together. Grammar is seen as a component of other skills.

Language is use for a specific purpose such as, vocational, social or recreational. In order to make the content comprehensible, teachers need to make adjustments and simplifications for the students to.

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